The poets and the philosophers paid him enthusiastic homage, and distinguished women testified to his superlative merits. The consequence was that nearly all the royal propositions were either rejected outright or so modified that Gustav himself withdrew them. Everyone should participate by asking questions or raising ideas throughout the salon from the above topics. If the Riksdag of 1778 had been docile, the Riksdag of 1786 was mutinous. Gustav next aimed at forming a league of princes against the revolutionary government in France, and subordinated every other consideration to this goal. He was educated by Carl Gustav Tessin and Karl Scheffer, two of Sweden's more eminent statesmen, and by … A song was composed by Carl Michael Bellman called the "Toast to King Gustav!". In 1773 he founded the Royal Swedish Opera and the Royal Swedish Ballet under the umbrella of his Royal Theatre. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Though it was sold back to France in 1878, many streets and locations there still carry Swedish names. When Catherine the Great refused to abandon her ally Denmark, Gustav declared war on Russia in June 1788, while it was deeply engaged in a war with the Ottoman Empire to the south.  In the following years Gustav III introduced a number of enlightened reforms: torture as an instrument of legal investigation was abolished; freedom of the press was granted; the poor law was amended; religious toleration was accorded; free trade was promoted; the navy was strengthened; and in 1777 a comprehensive currency reform was carried out. Enlightened absolutism (also called enlightened despotism or enlightened absolutist) refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and early 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, espousing them to enhance their power. They had changed places with the king. This is regarded as the greatest naval victory ever achieved by the Swedish Navy. He was very fond of the performing and visual arts, as well as literature. In 1777, Gustav III was the first formally neutral head of state in the world to recognize the United States during its war for independence from Great Britain. A month later, on 14 August 1790, a peace treaty was signed between Russia and Sweden: the Treaty of Värälä. etc. Regained the government under the control of the monarchy in a coup d’etat. That year, he named his brother, the Duke of Södermanland (later Charles XIII), to the office of Grand Master for the Grand Lodge of Sweden. The assassination of the king took place at a masked ball at the Royal Opera House in Stockholm at midnight on 16 March 1792. The structure of the salon should be a seminar/discussion. On 21 August, the king appeared in full regalia. Gustavus III. But the Swedish nobility remained implacably opposed to him, and an aristocratic conspiracy succeeded when Gustav was shot by Captain Jacob Johan Anckarström while attending the Stockholm opera house on March 16, 1792; the king died two weeks later. The Treaty of Värälä spared Sweden from any such humiliating concession, and in October 1791, Gustav concluded an eight years' defensive alliance with the empress, who thereby bound herself to pay her new ally an annual subsidy of 300,000 rubles. , The King twitched and said “ai” without falling. Toll proposed to raise a second revolt in the province of Scania, and to secure the southern fortress of Kristianstad. In 1775, free trade in grain was promoted and several oppressive export tolls were abolished. , The King, von Essen and Pollet continued through a corridor leading from the foyer towards the opera stage where the dancing took place. Only eight months before, Catherine had declared that "the odious and revolting aggression" of the king of Sweden would be "forgiven" only if he "testified his repentance" by agreeing to a peace granting a general and unlimited amnesty to all his rebels and consenting to a guarantee by the Swedish Riksdag for the observance of peace in the future ("as it would be imprudent to confide in his good faith alone"). Gustav's parents taught him to despise the governors imposed upon him by the Riksdag, and the atmosphere of intrigue and duplicity in which he grew up made him precociously experienced in the art of dissimulation. Gustav's foreign policy, on the other hand, was at first both restrained and cautious. The Riksdag was quite obsequious towards the king. Gustav He was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the Enlightenment and a Francophile. He was now indeed their sovereign lord. Ap Euro Ch. Confidential agents from the Swedish court had already prepared the way for him, and the Duke of Choiseul, the retired Chief Minister, resolved to discuss with him the best method of bringing about a revolution in France's ally, Sweden. The match was not a happy one, owing partly to an incompatibility of temperament, but still more to the interference of Gustav's jealous mother, Queen Louisa Ulrika. On the whole, Gustav cannot be said to have been well educated, but he read widely; there was scarcely a French author of his day with whose works he was not intimately acquainted. The philosophes 17-1 26 terms. Frederick bluntly informed his nephew that, in concert with Russia and Denmark, he had guaranteed the integrity of the existing Swedish constitution; he advised the young monarch to play the part of mediator and abstain from violence. Title: The Enlightenment 1 The Enlightenment 2 What Was the Enlightenment? S. During the time of the Enlightenment, most of the countries in continental Europe were ruled by monarchs who exercised absolute power. Returning to Sweden, Gustav aroused popular indignation against the mutinous aristocratic officers. Pray, allow an unknown whose pen is guided by tactfulness and the voice of conscience, dare take the liberty to inform You, with all possible sincerity, that certain individuals exist, both in the Provinces and here in the City, that only breathe hatred and revenge against You; indeed to the extreme of wanting to shorten Your days, through murder. The entire revolutionary enterprise was underwritten with loans procured from the French financier Nicolas Beaujon, arranged by the Swedish ambassador to France, Count Creutz. Nonetheless, he perhaps owed most of what shaped him during his early education to the poet and historian Olof von Dalin. Moreover, he possessed already as a boy the charm of manner that was to make him so fascinating and so dangerous in later life, coupled with a strong dramatic instinct that won him an honourable place in Swedish literature. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. When Frederick of Hessen died in 1751, he was succeeded by Adolf Frederick, who ruled until his death in 1771. Criminal justice became more lenient, the death penalty was restricted to a relatively short list of crimes (including murder), and torture was abolished in order to gain confessions, although the "strict death penalty", with torture-like corporal punishment preceding the execution, was maintained. Adolf Fredrik was succeeded by his son, Gustav III. The Russians lost one-third of their fleet and 7,000 men. He was well-acquainted with the philosophy of Voltaire, well-known for his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state. With many of them he maintained a lifelong correspondence. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th century that led to a whole new world view. Gustav succeeded in 1771 to a Swedish throne that had been weak since it was subordinated to the Riksdag in 1720. Bandits do not like lanterns; there is nothing more serviceable for an assassination than darkness and disguise. By 1792, King Gustav III of Sweden had amassed an enormous amount of personal power, displacing the old constitutional monarchy and forming an absolutist system based on the principles of the Enlightenment. His visit to the French capital was, however, no mere pleasure trip; it was also a political mission. Gustav even designed and popularized a Swedish national costume, which was in general use among the upper classes from 1778 until his death (and it is still worn by the ladies of the court on state occasions). Omissions? He was able to avoid complete disaster in the Russo-Swedish War by his brilliant naval victory at Svensksund (July 1790), and he ended the war with a peace treaty the following month. The Grand Lodge conferred upon him the title "Vicarius Salomonis" (Vicar of Solomon).. This caused conflicts - and, later, war. Gustav was a vocal opponent of what he saw as the abuse of political privileges seized by the nobility since the death of King Charles XII. Like many 18th century monarchs, Gustav III was influenced by the French Age of Enlightenment philosophers. He undertook to seize the fortress of Sveaborg in Finland by a coup de main. To this end he became a patron of the Swedish arts, curtailed the power and corruption of … , Anckarström stood at the entrance to the corridor holding a knife in his left hand and carrying one pistol in his left inner pocket and another pistol in his right back pocket. Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark, by proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766. The ball seems to be merry and bright.” The King with Baron Hans Henrik von Essen by his right arm went around the theatre once and then into the foyer where they met Captain Carl Fredrik Pollet. He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden and Queen Louise Ulrika (a sister of King Frederick the Great of Prussia), and a first cousin of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia by reason of their common descent from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and his wife Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. Gustav III is mainly remembered for his passion for arts, literature, theatre and music. Even those who were prepared to acquiesce in the change by no means liked it. This was a very new idea at the time. Kraus was present at the ball where Gustav was shot. Gustav was the son of … Gustav III was Sweden's great enlightenment-era monarch, and is remembered for his promotion art, culture and architecture.  Gustav's mother supported rumors that he was not the father of his first son and heir. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. 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Napoleon I, France . Gustav III was approached by Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten, a Finnish nobleman, who had incurred the enmity of the Caps, with the prospect of a revolution. He was betrothed to Princess Sophia Magdalene of Denmark when he was five, and married her fifteen years later, in 1766. From 4 February to 25 March 1771, Gustav was in Paris, where he carried both the court and the city by storm. Catherine II of Russia admired the philosophes. In return, Gustav abolished most of the old privileges of the nobility. Anckarström then lost courage, dropped the pistol and knife and shouted fire. When they reached the King, they heard him say “ai, je suis blessé”. For all his gentleness, he guarded the royal prerogative fiercely and plainly showed that he would continue to do so. Until 1788, spoken drama was also performed in the opera house. On the evening of 20 August, heralds roamed the streets proclaiming that the estates were to meet at the palace on the following day; every deputy absenting himself would be regarded as the enemy of his country and his king. His Rule and Reforms. The island's capital still bears the name Gustavia in honour of Gustav III. Even people with very little power or money should have the same rights as the rich and powerful to help create the societ… Then, after the brief Diet of Gävle on 22 January – 24 February 1792, he fell victim to a widespread political conspiracy among his aristocratic enemies.. It seemed to many that only a swift and sudden coup d'état could preserve Sweden's independence. Assign a role to the hostess, Madame Geoffrin. Gustavus III (1746-1792) was king of Sweden from 1771 to 1792. It is widely agreed that the contribution and dedication of Gustav III to the performing arts in Sweden, notably the building of the theatre houses and the founding of a national theatre company, has been crucial to the Swedish culture. In response, Gustav appealed to the three lower estates (clergy, burghers, peasants) of the Riksdag and in 1789 established a new constitution that augmented the royal authority. Napoleon reforms on? Gustav took an active part in every department of business, but relied heavily on extra-official counsellors of his own choosing rather than upon the Privy Council of Sweden. He stressed the need for all parties to sacrifice their animosities for the common good, and volunteered, as "the first citizen of a free people," to be the mediator between the contending factions. It was in the foyer of the opera house that King Gustav III was assassinated. City: Stockholm, Sweden Gustav III, the eldest son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, was the king of Sweden from 1771 to 1792. Another important idea was that a society is best when everyone works together to create it. , Gustav first intervened actively in politics during the December Crisis (1768), when he compelled the dominant Cap faction, which mainly represented the interests of the peasantry and clergy, to summon an extraordinary diet from which he hoped for the reform of the constitution in way that would increase the power of the crown. On 6 August 1772, Toll succeeded in winning the fortress of Kristianstad by sheer bluff, and on 16 August, Sprengtporten succeeded in surprising Sveaborg, but contrary winds prevented him from crossing to Stockholm. Notable opera composers under Gustav's reign were three artists originally from Germany: Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Georg Joseph Vogler and Joseph Martin Kraus. He told the assembled officers. The activity of the Swedish Enlightenment occurred during—and owed much to—the reign (1771–92) of King Gustav III. Many industries were founded to diminish imports and encourage exports. Taking his seat on the throne, he delivered his famous philippic, viewed as one of the masterpieces of Swedish oratory, in which he reproached the estates for their unpatriotic venality and license in the past. The national defences were raised to a "Great Power" scale, and the navy was so enlarged as to become one of the most formidable in Europe.  Gustav had arrived earlier that evening to enjoy a dinner in the company of friends. At first, the venture seemed headed for disaster before the Swedes successfully broke a blockade by the Russian fleet at the Battle of Svensksund on 9 July 1790. But in August 1772 he seized effective power of the government and established a new constitution which, replacing that of 1720, increased the crown’s powers at the expense of the Riksdag. Under the sway of the Cap faction, Sweden seemed in danger of falling prey to the political ambitions of Russia. In 1766 he married Sofia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark. 1 in D Wq 183 (H663): I. Allegro di molto", "Symphony No.  The close personal relationships that he formed with two of his courtiers, Count Axel von Fersen and Baron Gustav Armfelt, were alluded to in that regard. At the same time, his foreign policy became more adventurous. It was rumored at the time that Gustav was homosexual, a possibility asserted by some writers. Criminal justice became more lenient, the death penalty was restricted to a relatively short list of crimes (including murder), and torture was abolished in order to gain confessions, although the "strict death penalty", with torture-like corporal punishment preceding the execution, was maintained. The letter was written in French, and in translation it stated: To the King — with the greatest humility. The coup was a failure in the short run. Henceforth he showed a growing determination to rule without a parliament, a cautious and gradual passage from semi-constitutionalism to semi-absolutism. Gustav III of Sweden, for instance, pushed his reforms too far; the nobles assassinated him. His profound knowledge of popular assemblies enabled him, alone among contemporary sovereigns, to gauge the scope of the French Revolution accurately from the first. A form of government in the 18th century in which absolute monarchs pursued legal, social, and educational reforms inspired by the Enlightenment. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. A composition committee was actually formed, but it proved illusory from the first: the patriotism of neither faction was sufficient for the smallest act of self-denial. While visiting Paris. And after roughly ten minutes he said “this would have been an opportunity to shoot. Because of this, people should not automatically believe what an authority says. The Age of Freedom and bitter party politics was over. Gustav also introduced new national economic policies. and ambiguous one, as a consideration of Gustav III of Sweden (1771-1792), traditionally included among eighteenth-century en-lightened despots, will show. Anckarström edged himself behind the King, took out the pistol from his left inner pocket and pulled the trigger. His influence was so profound that an English traveler, upon seeing a Grecian temple in the far north, noted that its “magnificence and taste, like that monarch … [have] nothing in common with the country in which it has arisen.” "That we should have lost the constitutional battle does not distress us so much", wrote Gustav, in the bitterness of his heart; "but what does dismay me is to see my poor nation so sunk in corruption as to place its own felicity in absolute anarchy.". The much-praised Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was severely curtailed, however, by amendments in 1774 and 1792, effectively extinguishing independent media.. The era of opera during his time is referred to today as the Gustavian Opera.. The concept originated during the Enlightenment period in the 18th and into the early 19th centuries. 13 January] 1746 – 29 March 1792) note on dates was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. Thus, when the king summoned the estates to assemble at Stockholm on 3 September 1778, he could give a highly positive account of his six years' stewardship. In embarking on a war of aggression without the consent of the estates, Gustav violated his own constitution of 1772, which led to a serious mutiny, the Anjala Conspiracy, among his aristocratic officers in Finland. He became a Freemason in 1780, and introduced the Rite of Strict Observance into Sweden. [opinion] The subsequent attempts of the dominant Caps to reduce him to a roi fainéant (a powerless king), encouraged him to consider a coup d'état. He was an enlightened despot and a philosophe.  When his second son was born, there was no doubt as to his legitimacy, and the boy was strong and healthy. Part of the speech by Gustav III to the Estates: A new constitution, the Instrument of Government, was read to the estates and unanimously accepted by them. Have courage to use your own intelligence! The effort to remedy the widespread corruption that had flourished under the Hats and Caps engaged a considerable share of his time and he even found it necessary to put on trial the entire Göta Hovrätt, the superior court of justice, in Jönköping. At this juncture, the plotters were reinforced by Johan Christopher Toll, another victim of Cap oppression. He was not a great general like Frederick II of Prussia or a great empire-builder like Catherine II of Russia, nor did he labour tirelessly to rationalise the administration of a conglomeration of disparate principalities like Joseph II of Austria. Events soon occurred there that made his presence unnecessary in any case. Gustaf III. He is largely credited with creating the Royal Theatre (Kungliga Teatern), where his own historical dramas were performed, and he promoted the careers of many native singers and actors, among them the dramatic stars Fredrique Löwen and Lars Hjortsberg and the operatic stars Elisabeth Olin and Christoffer Christian Karsten, by letting them perform in his plays or in his commissioned operas, respectively. Following Gustav III's visit to Lyon, the aeronautics pioneers Montgolfier brothers in June 1784 launched a new hot air balloon called the Gustave in honor of the Swedish King, in which the first ever female aeronaut, singer Élisabeth Thible, took to the air. You may want to encourage students to dress in a costume. In 1766 he married Sofia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark. Corrections? The Riksdag was mainly run by the Swedish nobility in the Secret Committee, a group that dealt with finances and foreign affairs. However, the wound became infected, and on 29 March, the king finally died with these last words: Ulrica Arfvidsson, the famous medium of the Gustavian era, had told him something that could be interpreted as a prediction of his assassination in 1786, when he visited her anonymously – a coincidence – but she was known to have a large network of informers all over town to help her with her predictions, and she was in fact interrogated about the murder. Gustav thereupon resolved to strike the decisive blow without waiting for Sprengtporten's arrival. King Gustav was especially fond of him and suffered obvious and severe mental and physical reactions to the baby's illness and death. Taking advantage of Russia’s war with Turkey, he declared war on Russia in 1788, but treasonous activity by the Anjala League, a group of Swedish officers on the Finnish front, along with Denmark’s entry into the war on the side of Russia, worsened his situation. Gustav then founded a separate entity for spoken drama, the Royal Dramatic Theatre, with a new building behind the Royal Swedish Opera house. Charming and imaginative, Gustav also proved a vigorous patron of the arts. "W. Bolts' forslag till kolonisation af en ö….1786–1790", Rigsarkivet, Handel och Sjöfart, 193; cited in Åke W. Essén, "Wilhelm Bolts und die schwedischen Kolonisierungspläne in Asien", Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, uprising against the French monarchy in 1789, Wedding of Gustav III and Sophia Magdalena, King Gustav III of Sweden and his Brothers, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Christina Magdalena of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country, "Sweden's Part in the American Revolution", "Sanningen om det svenska slaveriet (SvD Premium)", "Sweden, the Slave Trade and Slavery, 1784-1847", "54 (Berättelser ur svenska historien / Nionde bandet. Among many liberal reforms he had made (while also cracking down on dissent) was to curtail the powers of the Swedish nobility. Gustav III Source: Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment Author(s): Marie-Christine Skuncke (1746–1792), King of Sweden (reigned 1771–1792). The poor law was amended and limited religious liberty was proclaimed for both Roman Catholics and Jews. During the Age of Enlightenment, as more and more people began to use reason, some began to disagree with the idea that God created the world. Updates? Gustav III (ruled 1771-1792) Swedish, read French enlightenment works, absolutism. carinaariel. Nonetheless, his successful leadership in the Battle of Svensksund averted a complete military defeat and signified that Swedish military might was to be countenanced. Gustav III, king of Sweden (1771–92), who reasserted the royal power over the Riksdag (parliament). Among those involved were Jacob Johan Anckarström, Adolph Ribbing, Claes Fredrik Horn, Carl Pontus Lilliehorn and Carl Fredrik Pechlin. An admirer of Voltaire, Gustav legalized Catholic and Jewish presence in Sweden, and enacted wide-ranging reforms aimed at economic liberalism, social reform and the restriction, in many cases, of torture and capital punishment. Short as the session was, it was long enough for the deputies to realize that their political supremacy was over. Born in Stockholm, the eldest son of the Prince Adolph Frederick and Louise Ulrica. State interference with his education as a young child caused significant political disruptions within the royal family. Gustav III was known in Sweden and abroad by his Royal Titles, or styles: 1. (Charles III of Spain, Catherine II of Russia, Gustav III of Sweden, Joseph I of Portugal) People from the King's lifeguard stood some meters away. A bulwark of enlightened despotism, Gustav spent considerable public funds on cultural ventures, which were controversial among his critics, as well as military attempts to seize Norway with Russian aid, then a series of attempts to re-capture the Swedish Baltic dominions lost during the Great Northern War through the failed war with Russia. They are greatly upset to see this not happening at the last masquerade but they rejoice at the tidings of seeing that there will be a new one today. Gustav worked towards reform in the same direction as other contemporary sovereigns of the Age of Enlightenment. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gustav III of Sweden . She invited Diderot to Russia and corresponded with other French thinkers. A conspiracy to have the king assassinated and reform the constitution was created within the nobility in the winter of 1791–92. Gustav worked towards reform in the same direction as other contemporary sovereigns of the Age of Enlightenment. Many of these monarchs read Enlightenment works and were intrigued by the new ideas thinkers put forth. On his return to Sweden, Gustav III tried unsuccessfully to mediate between the bitterly divided parties. After parade he reconducted them to the guard-room in the north western wing of the palace where the Guard of Honour had its headquarters and unfolded his plans to them. He seized control of the kingdom through a coup in 1772, and his 1789 ‘Union and Security Act’ took away the rest of the powers of the Swedish parliament. This incident became the basis of an opera libretto by Eugène Scribe set by Daniel Auber in 1833 under the title Gustave III, by Saverio Mercadante in 1843 as Il Reggente,and by Giuseppe Verdi in 1859 as Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball), with the specifics changed under the pressure of censorship. Gustav, the eldest son of King Adolf Fredrik, was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the Enlightenment. Sprengtporten lay weather-bound in Finland, Toll was 800 kilometres (500 miles) away, the Hat leaders were in hiding. The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) 1600s-1700s 8 terms. Education and law. He was a patron of the arts and attracted the best writers of the time to his court; by founding the Swedish Academy (1786) he gave them official status. The Enlightenment Mid 1700’s Note Key: If the writing is in black WRITE IT DOWN!!! On his way home, Gustav paid a short visit to his uncle, Frederick the Great, at Potsdam. Measures were also taken to reform the administration and judicial procedures. 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